Haemorrhoids are a relatively common complaint - around half the UK’s population will develop haemorrhoids at some point during their life and most haemorrhoids can be easily treated. If you’re experiencing persistent or severe symptoms of haemorrhoids - particularly pain or bleeding - you should speak to your GP. Your doctor should be able to rule out more potentially serious causes.
The exact cause of haemorrhoids is not clear, but it is closely related to increased pressure in the blood vessels of your back passage. This can cause swelling and inflammation of these blood vessels.
Straining and constipation when opening your bowels may make symptoms worse. Haemorrhoids are also very common during pregnancy, due to increased pressure on the pelvic blood vessels. Chronic (long-term) diarrhoea can also make you more susceptible to haemorrhoids.
You may be more prone to developing haemorrhoids due to:
- being overweight or obese
- being pregnant
- a family history of haemorrhoids
- regularly lifting heavy objects
- a persistent cough or repeated vomiting
- sitting down for long periods of time
If you think you have haemorrhoids, the first step is to see your GP. It’s only natural that you might feel embarrassed, but don't let that stop you seeking help. It’s a common complaint that GPs are used to dealing with.
Your GP can usually diagnose haemorrhoids with a simple internal examination of your back passage, although they may need to refer you to a specialist for diagnosis and treatment.
Common symptoms of haemorrhoids include bleeding from your bottom after passing a stool, and itching and soreness around your anus.
Haemorrhoids are usually painless and often don’t cause any symptoms, so many people don't even realise they have them.
- bleeding (bright red blood) from the bottom after passing a stools
- an itchy bottom
- a red or sore anus
- swelling around your anus
- a lump hanging outside the anus after passing a stool
- a mucus discharge from the anus after passing a stool
Haemorrhoids (piles) often clear up by themselves, without intervention, after a few days. Often simple dietary changes and self-care can help reduce the occurrence of haemorrhoids. For example, if constipation is thought to be the cause, then extra fibre in your diet will keep your stools soft and avoid the need for straining.
If you’re experiencing itching and discomfort there are many readily available, over-the-counter treatments that can reduce these symptoms.
If your symptoms are more severe, you may need further haemorrhoid treatment such as:
- banding of haemorrhoids (removing them by restricting their blood flow)
- haemorrhoidectomy (the surgical removal of haemorrhoids)
Your surgeon will recommend what’s most appropriate for you.
The banding (or ligation) of haemorrhoids is a non-surgical procedure where a tight rubber band is attached around the base of an internal haemorrhoid. The band constricts the blood supply to the haemorrhoid, causing it to fall off.
If you are suffering with a suspected condition, you should seek the advice of your doctor who will be able to refer you to Benenden Hospital for diagnosis and treatment.